Construction has long been recognized as a high hazard industry and is one of the industries
targeted in MOSH's five-year Strategic Plan. Accidents relating to struck/crushed by hazards are one
of the leading causes of serious injuries and fatalities. It is believed that through a local
emphasis program that increases awareness and accelerates enforcement activity, injuries can be
reduced. It is also recognized that a tracking mechanism for these type inspections would prove
beneficial in monitoring the area of crushed-by/struck-by hazards. In the past, many un-programmed
inspections have been conducted through CSHO self-referrals, imminent danger complaints, or accident
investigations. This LEP is designed to increase inspection activity, provide tracking, enhance
expertise, and formalize procedures.
MOSH compliance personnel shall ensure that the procedures contained in this Instruction are
followed when conducting this LEP. The Regional Offices will implement the procedures described in
this Instruction in response to imminent dangers or serious crushed-by/struck-by hazards that are
identified on construction sites. The Regional Supervisors shall use this LEP as a basis for
scheduling and conducting safety inspections of construction sites. This LEP is intended to be used
on any construction site where crushed-by/struck-by hazards have been alleged and/or identified to
initiate safety inspections. These inspections shall be expanded to comprehensive inspections of
multi-employer construction sites.
- An inspection targeting system which encompasses identification of sites at the beginning of
the quarter and the random selection of sites is not practical. Crushed-by/struck-by hazards on
construction sites are normally transient and of limited duration. This limits the practicality of
targeting the site in advance. Therefore, inspections conducted under this LEP would be initiated
by several means: Compliance Officer observance, non-formal complaints, and referrals from other
- All work sites where crushed-by/struck-by hazards are observed by compliance officers will be
selected for inspection under this LEP. Employee exposure to the crushed-by/struck-by hazards does
not have to be observed, only the presence of potential crushed-by/struck-by hazards need to be
observed to conduct an inspection. These sites shall include, but shall not be limited to:
- Excavation/Trenching operations;
- Utility installations;
- Overhead work activities;
- Equipment with rotating superstructures, i.e. cranes;
- Where equipment/vehicles are driven near employees on foot.
Other which constitute potential struck/crushed by hazards and no protective systems are in use
such as site clearing, road work, and dumping activities.
- When a jobsite with potential crushed-by/struck-by hazards is noted during travel, the compliance
officer shall notify the supervisor with the name of the contractor (if known) and the location of
the site. The Supervisor will determine if the site has been inspected within the last 30 days.
- If the site has not been inspected within the last 30 days, permission may be given to inspect
the site. Compliance officers will record these inspections as planned inspections.
- If the site has been inspected within the last 30 days, an inspection will be authorized only if
an imminent danger appears to be present or at the Regional Supervisor's discretion. These
inspections will normally be limited to the imminent danger situation and other serious plain view
hazards. The Compliance Officer will remain at the site to observe the abatement procedures and/or to
recommend abatement methods. Compliance officers will record these inspections as referral
- A large number of crushed-by/struck-by hazards are reported via referrals and complaints, both
of a formal and a non-formal nature. Formal complaints of crushed-by/struck-by hazards on
construction sites will continue to be scheduled before programmed inspections.
- The IMIS identifier code to be used in item 25c on the OSHA-1 will be
"CRUSHED-BY/STRUCK-BY HAZARDS IN CONSTRUCTION".
cc: J. Ronald DeJuliis, Commissioner, Division of Labor and Industry
Craig D. Lowry, Deputy Commissioner, Division of Labor and Industry
Jonathan Krasnoff, Assistant Attorney General
Office of Administrative Hearings